考试非强制型学校越来越多,没有成绩也能上名校? The list of test-optional colleges and universities keeps growing — despite College Board’s latest jab

目前,越来越多的大学表示,学生申请入学时将不再需要提交ACT和SAT考试成绩,这类学校通常被称为考试非强制型学校。对于ACT和SAT考试的主办方来说,这不是一个好消息。

This can’t be great news for the owners of the ACT and the SAT college admissions exams, but the list of colleges and universities that no longer require scores from those tests to be submitted with a student application keeps growing.

据一家非赢利机构 National Center for Fair and Open Testing(FairTest)公布的“考试非强制型学校”名单显示,美国目前已有超过950所学校不要求考试成绩,其中275所学校在美国新闻报每年发布的大学排行榜上排名靠前。该机构表示他们决心要终止标准考试的滥用。

The list of test-optional schools maintained by the nonprofit National Center for Fair and Open Testing now has more than 950 accredited schools that award bachelor’s degrees, with more than 275 highly ranked in their tiers of the U.S. News & World Report annual rankings. The center, known as FairTest, is dedicated to ending the misuse of standardized tests.

最新加入这个名单的学校有:波士顿的Emerson College、阿肯色州的University of the Ozarks、南卡罗来纳州的Wofford College、纽约的Houghton College、以及曼彻斯特的Worcester State University.

The latest schools to join the list include Emerson College in Boston; University of the Ozarks in Clarksville, Ark.; Wofford College in Spartanburg, S.C.; Houghton College in western New York; and Worcester State University in Massachusetts.

这些学校对考试成绩的态度有所不同。大约有几百所学校对成绩完全不要求,有一些则是要求学生达到特定分数即可。还有一些学校对考试成绩持开放态度,学生可以自由选择他们想要提交的考试成绩,包括AP成绩。根据FairTest的数据显示,对成绩持开放态度的学校不超过12所。

There are different ways that schools approach test scores for admissions. Hundreds don’t require them at all; others don’t require them for students with certain grade-point averages. Hampshire College doesn’t want them at all. There are also “test-flexible” schools that allow students to submit scores of their choosing from different tests, including Advanced Placement. Fewer than a dozen schools in the FairTest databank are test-flexible.

大学委员会,也就是SAT考试的主办方,近期在其官网发布了一篇文章,标题为“关于考试非强制性政策的几项事实”,文章重申了SAT成绩在预测学生在大学里第一年表现的重要性,而这一点之前曾饱受争议。

The College Board, which owns the SAT, recently published an attack on the list with a story on its website titled “The Facts About Test-Optional Policies,” which repeats what the College Board has long said: that SAT scores are predictive of how a student will do in college in his/her first year (a point that has been challenged by critics).

Ruthanne Madsen, 爱默生学院招生管理处副主席表示:“在爱默生我们发现,SAT或者ACT成绩与学生在学校的学术表现并无直接关系。所以我们现在决定更多的关注学生的表现,以及他能为学校和社区所做的贡献。” 爱默生学院近期刚刚决定称为考试非强制型大学的一员。

A number of schools have taken issue with this, most recently Emerson College, which just decided to become test optional. Ruthanne Madsen, vice president for enrollment management, was quoted as saying in the Berkeley Beacon:

“We have found that there is not really a correlation with success at Emerson and SAT or ACT scores. So we are more fixated on the performance of the student and what contribution they can make to the classroom and in our community.”

大学委员会发布的文章中表示,GPA不应该成为大学录取的唯一指标(尽管没有人说过GPA应该是),因为GPA受学校地理位置、教师偏好、区域标准的影响。然而他们并没有提及SAT考试同样会受到多重因素的影响,除了上述因素外,还有学生状态和心理等因素。同时,大学委员会还表示,成绩非强制不利于促进学校的多样性,但是它也没有说这会对多样性造成损害。

The College Board piece says that grade point-averages shouldn’t be used as a single measure for college admissions (although nobody actually said it should, given other pieces of information that colleges ask students to produce).

It also says GPAs are subject to “variables like school demographics, teacher discretion, and state and district standards.” It doesn’t mention, of course how test scores are subject to variables, too, such as school demographics, teacher discretion, state and district standards, whether someone is sick or hungry or has test anxiety, etc. It also says test-optional practices don’t promote diversity in school — but doesn’t say it hurts it.

去年,路透社的一篇文章中曾提及佛蒙特州的一所文理学院,该学院于2006年决定转型为考试非强制型学校。做出这个决定的是当时的校长Elizabeth Coleman,而她是目前大学委员会主席David Coleman的母亲。她在接受路透社采访时表示:“对我来说,最好不要讨论这件事。我是他的母亲。一个聪明母亲应该做的事就是不要谈论这些。”

Last year, Reuters noted in this story that Bennington, a liberal arts college in Vermont, went test optional in 2006, and the person who made the decision was then-president Elizabeth Coleman,  the mother of David Coleman, the current head of the College Board. She was quoted as saying by Reuters:

“Probably it’s a good idea not to talk about this stuff. I’m his mother. One of the wise things for a mother to do is to stay out of it.”

大学委员会表示这句话完全是断章取义。根据其发布的声明称,Elizabeth当时是在谈论他儿子于大学委员会任职一事,而不是针对考试非强制这件事。

The College Board says that that quote was taken out of context. It provided this statement: “This blog post pulls from an article that takes out of context a quote from Elizabeth Coleman. She was addressing a request to talk about David Coleman’s tenure at the College Board broadly, not test optional specifically.”

ACT考试的前主办方ACT集团此前也发表过声明表达对考试非强制政策的不满。声明中说道,考试非强制政策对学生多样性没有造成任何影响,并声明数据表明ACT考试分数不仅能预测学生的第一年表现,还能预测学生的长期表现,包括包括记忆力,GPA以及毕业发展。

ACT Inc., which (obviously) owns the ACT test, last year published its own attack on test-optional policies. Its report also said that test-optional policies don’t have any effect on student diversity, and said that the data “indicate that ACT scores are predictive not only of first-year success but also of long-term college outcomes such as retention, cumulative GPA and graduation.”

Scott White, 一位新泽西的资深教育顾问并不赞同两所机构对考试非强制政策的攻击。他表示,这两所机构只是选取里对他们有利的数据来试图证明他们的观点,而他们的很多观点与事实并不相符。ACT曾发表过一篇标题为“更多的信息,更多的讨论:为什么考试非强制性政策对机构和学生是无益的”文章,文章中提及了一项2011年鲍登学院关于没有提交考试成绩的研究。该研究显示,那些入学没有提交考试成绩的学生第一年的GPA普遍较低,比入学申请时提交了考试成绩的学生低了大约0.2分,就像他们的低SAT成绩预测的那样。

Scott White, a veteran college counselor in New Jersey, blasted both organizations for their arguments about test-optional policies, saying that they cherry-pick data to try to prove their points and sometimes make statements that have no real bearing in fact. For example, writing about the ACT report titled, “More Information, More Informed Decisions: Why test-optional policies do NOT benefit institutions or students,”  he criticized a passage in a 2011 study of Bowdoin College about students who did not submit test scores. The study said that “their first-year grade-point average (FYGPA) was substantially lower, as would have been predicted by their lower SAT scores,” and then it says this: “The average FYGPA was roughly 0.20 lower for non-submitters as compared to submitters.”

然而Scott认为0.2分的差距并不能说明问题。同时他还指出,这篇文章的一名作者正是大学委员会的一名工作人员。

Scott wrote:

“First year GPA is substantially lower” for student who don’t submit scores, “as would have been predicted by their lower SAT scores.” How substantial? .2. Yes, they actually are saying that a difference of .2 in a GPA is “substantial”. Really! And these are professional statisticians! Time to go back to school!

大学委员会对考试非强制政策的批判还体现在对学校的不认可上,它表示在FairTest公布的考试非强制型学校的名单中,115所是营利型学校,比如时装艺术学院(Academy of Couture Art), 该学校仅有17名学生;230所是特别关注学校,比如辛辛那提殡葬科学学院(Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science);超过70所学校是两年制或者职业学校;315所学校是开放式入学学校或者从来没有采用过入学考试的学校;还有一些学校根本不存在,比如纳克斯维尔学院(Knoxville College),1997年就已经停止办学。

The College Board’s attack on test-optional schools includes a shot at FairTest’s list:

The vast majority of U.S. colleges require SAT scores as part of the application process, and all of them accept scores.

This fact has been obscured by the National Center for Fair and Open Testing (FairTest) through an online list, which currently cites 900 schools that “do not use ACT/SAT scores to admit substantial numbers of students into bachelor-degree programs.” A closer look suggests the number is much smaller:

  • About 115 are for-profit schools, like the Academy of Couture Art, which has 17 total students.

  • About 230 are special focus schools, like the Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science.

  • More than 70 are two-year or certificate schools, and an additional 315 are open-admission schools or schools that were never primary users of college entrance exams to begin with. Some schools don’t exist anymore, like Knoxville College, which lost accreditation in 1997 and has since stopped operating.

在大学委员会发表声明时,Knoxville College还在FairTest的名单上,但现在该学校已经不在了。

Knoxville College was on the list at the time the College Board posted its article. It no longer is.

Bob Schaeffer,FairTest的公共教育主管表示,所有在FairTest名单上的学校都可以授予学术学位,尽管有些学校是两年制。同时他也表示,FairTest的学校名单来源是联邦政府的数据库,跟大学委员会用的数据库是同一个。

And, according to Bob Schaeffer, public education director for FairTest, every school on the test-optional/flexible list grants some bachelor degrees, though some primarily focus on two-year courses. He said that the College Board’s arguments against test-optional schools are recycled every few years, and that the February 2017 piece “largely replicates a piece they put out a decade ago when our list was much smaller.” He wrote:

“大学委员会试图诋毁考试非强制型学校的质量,但是他们忽略了一个事实,在全国排名前一百的文理学院中,有近一半的学校是考试非强制型学校或考试开放型学校。” Schaeffer说道。“对于开放入学学校以及盈利型学校,包括殡葬学院,大学委员会的学校手册中也包含了这些学校。”

There’s nothing new in the College Board’s claims. In fact, FairTest’s list of schools is based on the federal government’s IPEDS database, just like the College Board handbook … The College Board’s attempt to denigrate the quality of test-optional institutions conveniently ignores the fact that half of the “Top 100″ national liberal arts schools have test-optional or test-flexible policies. Most importantly growing numbers of college bound students are interested in being treated as “more than a score” — last year, FairTest’s database hosted more than 400,000 visits!

Original News: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2017/04/12/the-list-of-test-optional-colleges-and-universities-keeps-growing-despite-college-boards-latest-jab/?from=singlemessage&isappinstalled=0&utm_term=.dde75652175f

Published on: http://wcmi.us/fairtest

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