新法案拟将要求员工向雇主提供基因检测报告The House GOP is pushing a bill that would let employers demand workers’ genetic test results

国会近期提出了一项新法案,该法案拟将允许雇主要求雇员接受基因检测,使雇主获得雇员的基因以及其他健康信息,拒绝参与基因测试的员工,将面临承担数千美元罚款的风险。

A little-noticed bill moving through Congress would allow companies to require employees to undergo genetic testing or risk paying a penalty of thousands of dollars, and would let employers see that genetic and other health information.

目前的法律,如2008反基因歧视法(通常被称为GINA),禁止雇主以遗传信息为依据进行雇佣、解聘、升职、加薪,或做出任何与雇佣行为有关的决定。然而,新法案提出,当收集基因健康信息成为职场健康计划(workplace wellness programs)的一部分时,以前的基因保护法案已经不适用了。

Giving employers such power is now prohibited by legislation including the 2008 genetic privacy and nondiscrimination law known as GINA. The new bill gets around that landmark law by stating explicitly that GINA and other protections do not apply when genetic tests are part of a ‘workplace wellness’ program.

职场健康计划,是在公司内开展的一套关于健康信息的“奖惩机制”,通过监控测评等方式来改善员工的健康。对于完成了健康风险评估的员工,将提供健康保险的补贴和奖励,对于未提供信息的人处以罚款。根据现行的“Affordable Care Act”,雇主可以为自愿参加健康计划的员工提供超过5折的医疗保险折扣。

根据去年奥巴马发布的“平等就业机会委员会”相关条例,职场健康计划被归类成“自愿”,然而,如果员工们选择不参加该计划,他们必须支付数千美元的费用。

新法案HR1313周三获得了众议院委员会的通过,所有22名共和党人都投了支持票,而所有17名民主党人都表示反对。受废除和替代平价医疗法案(ACA)辩论的影响,该法案的提出并没有获得很多关注,但是,该法案将被纳入第二个与ACA有关的法案.

The bill, HR 1313, was approved by a House committee on Wednesday, with all 22 Republicans supporting it and all 17 Democrats opposed. It has been overshadowed by the debate over the House GOP proposal to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, but the genetic testing bill is expected to be folded into a second ACA-related measure containing a grab-bag of provisions that do not affect federal spending, as the main bill does.

“该法案将完全取消现有法律的保护。” Jennifer Mathis,民权组织“心理健康法律中心”政策和法律倡导部主任说道。尤其是GINA对基因和健康信息的保护,以及1990年美国残疾人法都会受到重创。

“What this bill would do is completely take away the protections of existing laws,” said Jennifer Mathis, director of policy and legal advocacy at the Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, a civil rights group. In particular, privacy and other protections for genetic and health information in GINA and the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act “would be pretty much eviscerated,” she said.

雇主代表团上周在国会辩论时表示,他们需要改革,因为之前的法案与职场健康计划“没有保持一致性”。

Employers say they need the changes because those two landmark laws are “not aligned in a consistent manner” with laws about workplace wellness programs, as an employer group said in congressional testimony last week.

尽管取得了些许成就,但业界仍旧把基因信息和残疾人法看作是实行职场健康计划的最后一个障碍。根据美国福利委员会上周在国会提交的证词,这两种措施都可能会威胁职场健康计划的可行性和有效性,使得雇员无法“改善健康和提高生产力”。该委员会代表了财富500强企业和其他提供员工福利的大型雇主。但是它没有立即回答雇主无法获得遗传信息是如何损害职场健康计划的问题。

Despite those wins, the business community chafed at what it saw as the last obstacles to unfettered implementation of wellness programs: the genetic information and the disabilities laws. Both measures, according to congressional testimony last week by the American Benefits Council, “put at risk the availability and effectiveness of workplace wellness programs,” depriving employees of benefits like “improved health and productivity.” The council represents Fortune 500 companies and other large employers that provide employee benefits. It did not immediately respond to questions about how lack of access to genetic information hampers wellness programs.

研究表明,健康计划并没有很大程度的提高员工健康。一个业内组织近期得出的结论认为,平均而言,健康计划并没有帮助节省医疗费用。然而雇主仍然选择支持该计划,部分原因是为了将医疗费用转移到员工身上,包括在财政上惩罚他们。

An industry group recently concluded that they save so little on medical costs that, on average, the programs lose money. But employers continue to embrace them, partly as a way to shift more health care costs to workers, including by penalizing them financially.

根据新的法案,GINA或残疾人法案提供的对健康和遗传信息的保护都不适用于职场健康计划。因此,雇主可以要求雇员接收基因检测和健康筛查。

尽管反馈到雇主的信息不会包含雇员的姓名,但是在一个小公司里,将基因信息与本人匹配并不是一件难事。

While the information returned to employers would not include workers’ names, it’s not difficult, especially in a small company, to match a genetic profile with the individual.

美国人类遗传协会主席南希考克斯在该法案被批准的前一天致信众议院教育委员会和劳工队伍,表示新法案将损坏隐私保护法的基础。“它将允许雇主向雇员提出带有入侵性的问题,询问他们以及他们家庭成员的基因检测结果,并对那些选择保留此类信息的雇员施以严厉的罚款,从而逼迫雇员提供他们的遗传信息”。

That “would undermine fundamentally the privacy provisions’ of those laws,” said Nancy Cox, president of the American Society of Human Genetics, in a letter to the House Committee on Education and the Workforce the day before it approved the bill. “It would allow employers to ask employees invasive questions about … genetic tests they and their families have undergone” and “to impose stiff financial penalties on employees who choose to keep such information private, thus empowering employers to coerce their employees” into providing their genetic information.

职场健康计划也引发了隐私问题。雇主,尤其是大公司,经常雇佣外来公司来管理健康计划,这些公司通常不受监管,他们也能看到员工的基因检测结果。

The privacy concerns also arise from how workplace wellness programs work. Employers, especially large ones, generally hire outside companies to run them. These companies are largely unregulated, and they are allowed to see genetic test results with employee names.

这些外来公司有时会将从员工那里收集来的健康信息进行出售,无数陌生人对这些健康和遗传信息进行挖掘,导致员工接收到各种意想不到的推销电话,从减肥课程到售卖跑鞋。

They sometimes sell the health information they collect from employees. As a result, employees get unexpected pitches for everything from weight-loss programs to running shoes, thanks to countless strangers poring over their health and genetic information.

Original News: http://www.businessinsider.com/house-gop-employers-demand-workers-genetic-test-results-2017-3

Published on: http://wcmi.us/genetictest

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